The Peruvian Presidents An Evaluation By Rosamaria Baca

Biography written by studentsofenglish on Saturday 25, July 2009

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The history of Peruvian Government has several events that are very interesting, our country has been passing a lot of political changes thereby we were with civilest and militaries governments. In the way, we had been trying to become a nation. Many presidents wanted to do good things for Peru, but while we were advancing, the change of political method destroyed what we had advanced and the president who took the government had to drag with all that the previous leader had left. A good example of these changes is the periods of government of Alan Garcia, Fujimori and Toledo; that I am going to treat to do an examination of our situation. To talk about our ex President Alberto Fujimori means to get back in the past and revive difficult times of the Peruvian government, years that were very bad and bitter for ones, but at the same time, happy and good for other ones. Knowing more about him, here I will show some parts of his life, the facts of his government: the things he did, the things that he did not do and his actual life. Alberto Fujimori was born in the department of Lima on July 28, 1938 in the district of Miraflores, Peru. His father was Naoichi Fujimori (1897""1971) and his mother was Mutsue Inomoto of Fujimori (1913""2009), they came from Kumamoto, a place located in Japan, they got married and immigrated as Peruvian and Japanese citizens. Fujimori is the second of four children. Fujimori received his education in "Nuestra Señora de la Merced", and "La Rectora school", besides he graduated in high school "La gran unidad escolar Alfonso Ugarte" in Lima in 1956. Also, he went to study in "La Molina" National Agrarian University in the year of 1957, graduating in 1961, being the first of his class as an agricultural engineer; he received lots of good proposals for his future. In his mater soul, he taught mathematics the next year of his graduation; also in 1964 he traveled to France to study physics at the University of Strasbourg. Having a scholarship, he also went to the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in the United States; there he reached a master's degree in mathematics in 1969. Passing five years, he got married with a woman called Susana Higuchi, who also has Japanese descent like him. Together had four children and a daughter Keiko, who kept the politics tendencies of her father. In 1987, Fujimori became president of the National Commission of Peruvian University Rectors twice. Alberto Fujimori made his debut in politics as a candidate for the presidency of Peru, fighting for the position with the popular writer Mario Vargas Llosa. In a surprising upset, Fujimori won the presidential election of 1990 presenting a new party banner called "Change 90" with the nickname "The Chinese", reaching this place because he was considerate as a man of the people and was in fact more drastic than his opponent had proposed. The objectives of Fujimori on his campaign were to pacify the nation and restore the economic balance, due to during the government of the previous president Alan Garcia, the economy experimented a period of hyperinflation and the political system was in crisis because of the country's internal conflict; dragging Peru in a deep chaos. Going inside the facts, he reduced private sector price control, suppressed all exchange controls, and also decreased restrictions on capital flow, investment, and imports. Tariffs were simplified, the minimum wage was quadrupled, and the government established millions of dollars in poverty foundations. Step by step, foreign investments were flooding and the hyperinflation began to fall very quick. On his government he changed the monetary system, replacing the "Inti" by the "New Sol", which is still the actual financial currency; reestablished the stability to the economy and caused a growing of the rate on 13%, faster than any other economy in the world, which were immediately realized by all Peruvians of all levels. Fujimori signed an agreement for peace with Ecuador over a border dispute that had simmered for more than a century, due to in the government of Leguia, he had gifted part of the Peruvian territory (Amazon exactly). The centralism prevailed and men and women who lived in the highlands and jungle invaded the capital to find a better future. He also started to have a rude tendency to control his ministers and people of the government, that is why he closed the Congress, suspended the constitution, and cleaned the judicial power. These actions were made with the military help, and are known as "Fujimori's self coup", thing that put in alarm the population, but Fujimori took advantage of that saying: "It is not a negation of real democracy, but on the contrary... a search for an authentic transformation to assure a legitimate and effective democracy". For this, he alleged that it was ultra necessary to do a rescue of the country from what Garcia did. Soon after, appeared numerous protests on the streets made by people who were disagree with the way of the president; these had been "Shining path" or "MRTA", which were revolutionary groups that emphasized their protests with the violence Fujimori found the situation very difficult to combat, due to those groups used to use guns and killed people. So, he took drastic decisions to relieve the situation of Peru: helped by Vladimiro Montesinos (head of the National intelligence service), created a new and special group extra military called "Colina Group". This group was trained to alive the problem of terrorism that suffered the country, to carried out that, the intelligence service chose the bests militaries "to do the job", that means life for life. Colina group killed people by the order of the government; they committed a lot of errors but finally, they reached their objective: disappear the terrorism and keep the peace. Many countries broken their exterior relationships with us, this is the case of Venezuela, Argentina, and others. Also, we had serious troubles with the International Monetary Fund and the Organization of American States that is why United States, Germany and Spain stopped the investments and all kind of projects. Time later, the government promised a social program of emergency to protect the poorest people, providing temporary food, aid and employment. Nevertheless, any program was materialized over a year into the government. Peru was clearly in a critical situation, with economic deterioration and political violence as a prerequisite to democratic consolidation, but that was what the population chose. His period as leader of country were in decline starting by the stripped of two universities, the reshuffling of the national electoral board, the elimination of important constitutional rights; such as the habeas corpus, and the announcement that he would compete for a third term. Before this, people considered him as an authoritarian person. Months later, Susana Higuchi, his wife, accused his brother of waste foreign aid donations; then he was involved in a corruption scandal with Vladimiro Montesinos, there were many documents and videotapes called "Vladi-videos" which could serve as a testimony for their crimes. The bomb exploited with the "Vladi-videos", so being very smart Fujimori went to visit Brunei to attend the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum, and then he traveled to Tokyo, where he sent his resignation by fax. The political history in Peru kept its course, but no one wanted to be the successor, until Valentin Paniagua, the president of the Congress of that year, became the new provisional president of Peru, while the country waited the coming elections where Alejandro Toledo was elected. Besides, Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile abroad until his detainment during a visit to Chile in 2005. He was finally extradited to face criminal charges in Peru in 2007 and now the was condemned of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by Colina Group. The verdict was given by a three judge panel marked the first time that a president has been extradited back to his home country. Fujimori was specifically found guilty of murder, two cases of kidnapping and bodily harm. To talk about this character means to remind a man who gave a little piece of hope to our country. Not at all very handsome but in contrast, very intelligent Alejandro Toledo knew how to put up the view of Peru in the world. Many people who lived in the highlands felt indentified with him and though that he would be "the new Inkarri", myth which treats about the last Inca Felipe Tupac Amaru, who wanted to restore the Tahuantinsuyo but, he was decapitated, so the hope of the restoring died with him. For this, the population said that their Inca will come again from the regeneration of the body of Felipe Tupac Amaru to put order in the life. When the head of the Inkarri will form the body and will be complete, it will become the "new Pachacutec", pseudonym of our ex president. That is why on his campaign he did a march called "March of the four suyos" alleging the restore of the Tahuantinsuyo. Knowing more about him, here I present passages of his life starting for his biography and period of government. Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique was born on 28 March 1946, is a Peruvian politician and a good economist. He was the President of Peru in the period of the yeas from 2001 to 2006. The family Toledo Manrique had sixteen children; they were indigenous farmers of Quechua descent. The father was a bricklayer and the mother was a fishmonger, while Alejandro worked shining shoes. They lived in Cabana, a town placed in the province of Pallasca, in the department of Ancash. Toledo studied at the state school "La Gran.Unidad Escolar San Pedro". When he had sixteen years old, he traveled to United States helped by the members of the Peace Corp to get a scholarship at the University of San Francisco for one year. Playing soccer and working in part time pumping gas, he could complete his Bachelor's degree in Economics. Time later he went to Stanford University where he got Masters in Education and Economics, besides he obtained his PhD in Education in the School of Education of this University. After that, he was working abroad and became a professor at the University of the Pacific in Peru, teaching Economics. Toledo worked as a consultant for several organizations such as, the United Nations, the World Bank, the Inter American Development Bank, the International Labour Organization, and the various international organizations, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. He was a researcher at the Harvard Institute for International Development. Toledo was also an invited professor in Tokyo at the University of Waseda, and at the Japan Foundation. Toledo got married with a Belgian anthropologist; Eliane Karp since 1979. They were separated in the 1990s, but did not divorce. Together they have one child, a daughter named Chantal who was born in 1983. She always has been near her husband; actually they were a presidential with tendency to avail themselves with luxury products. They carefully adapt their public appearances to their public. Entering in his political career, Toledo presented himself as an independent candidate for the presidency in the election of 1995, where Fujimori was re elected. In 1999 he founded the "Peru Possible" party and declared his return for the elections of 2000. Suddenly, people found himself a leader of the opposition against Fujimori and he received the support of most of the other presidential candidates. When Fujimori sent his waiver and Valentin Paniagua became the new, he planned the new elections on 29 May, 2001. Toledo won after a close run-off election with the ex President Alan Garcia of the APRA, so he entered in palace on 28 July, 2001. During his government, Peruvian economy grew of six point four percent, one of the highest growth rates in Latin America. Inflation had a midpoint of 1.5 percent and fiscal deficit went as low as 0.2 percent; he also worked in the task of reducing poverty, creating a program called "Together". This fund started in 2005 as a conditional cash transfer for women who live in rural places and are head of family; 100 000 families were benefited from the program, then it raised and 200 000 families were benefited in 320 districts of the country. At the same time with the drive of high prices of mineral exploitation, private investments, the commerce, agricultural business and exports were increasing. Besides, one his major legacies is the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, which is a free trade agreement signed on April 12, 20. He also worked for an FTA with the country of Thailand, which was implemented during 2006. In South America, Toledo inspired the start of the development of a highway to open the neighbor countries of Brazil and Bolivia to Pacific ports, pointed the enhancing of the economy of Peru, opening to the trade flows from Brazil towards Asia. For his actions, he is considered as a promoter of the South American Community of Nations. Since he left the Presidency of our country in the year of 2006, Alejandro Toledo has given speeches on international matters and written an op-ed piece on democracy in Venezuela for the New York Times newspaper. He has not rule out that he perhaps make another run for the Presidency of Peru for the next period of 2011. All these could have been the perfect period of the history of the government of Peru, but how not all is as good as we think, Toledo had a blemish on his reputation when he did not admit the paternity of Zarai, daughter of a woman named Lucrecia Orozco who was couple of him. And adding another scandal, the wash of money by Eliane Karp from the foundation called CONAPA. Who does not know this name? Who does not know this man? Well, to talk about Alan Garcia Perez, let introduce us in the world of the memories and go inside Peruvian history around the years of 1985, for then do a jump to our actual government which started in 2006. Starting his biography, his complete name is Alan Gabriel Ludwig Garcia Perez. He was born on 23 May, 1949 in the department of Lima. He belonged to a family of the middle class that maintained close relationships with the APRA party. His father named Carlos Garcia Ronceros was the secretary of this party while Manuel Odria governed, who said the APRA is an illegal party because it is foreign. Due to his political militancy, his father was arrested and then put in prison, leaving him like a strange from his family, that it is why he did not meet his son Alan until five years later. His mother was called Nytha Perez Rojas and loved him a lot. Alan Garcia is married with an Argentine named Pilar Nores, who has been by his side for over twenty years and together they had 4 children: Josefina, Gabriela, Luciana and Alan Raul. But he also had two children with two women: Karla, a product of his first marriage with Carla Buscaglia, and Federico, of three years old, who is a product of his relationship with Elizabeth Cheesman. Alan Garcia studied at the national school "Jose Maria Eguren", placed in Barranco, a district of Lima. He went to study at the Pontifical Catholic University and later earned his law degree at the National University of San Marcos in 1971. Time after, he moved to Europe, attending the Complutense University in Madrid, where he studied and completed his thesis on constitutional law, obtaining a doctorate in political science. In 1973, he went to the University of Paris, where he got a degree in sociology. While Garcia was living in Paris, at the year of 1978, Haya de la Torre, the leader of the APRA party (who dies one year later), called him to return to political life in Peru. Alan Garcia is the current President of Peru, having won the 2006 elections on June 4, 2006 in a run-off against the party "Union for Peru" of the candidate Ollanta Humala. He served a first term as President from 1985 to 1990. His first term was marked by a severe economic crisis, social unrest and violence. He ran unsuccessfully for the Presidency in 2001, losing in a run-off to Alejandro Toledo. His actual government is making new trade agreements with several years and is working the cotton and yellow corn producers. Now he wants to destroy the Amazon to get oil for the benefit of all the country. Bibliography:

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    I think Rosamaria's presentation was a bit ambitious for her command of English. Perhaps a simpler format would have worked better? On the plus side, I found the reference to Inca history fascinating and a very nice addition. Well done! Cool