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In this job I have the pleasure to present a composition of three of the last presidents of my country (Alberto Fujimori Fujimori, Toledo Manrique and Alan Garcia Perez) that with some of their work during they terms took some important decisions that in someway have changed the course of Peru and some of them were good and positive actions to improve the country and because of that, obtain a better type of life. But others did not take so many advantages because they were only to improve the government's profits by the corruption.
Alberto Fujimori (1938- ) is a Peruvian politician of Japanese descent. He was elected President of Peru three times between 1990 and 2000. However, he fled the country prior to completing his third term. A highly controversial figure, he is credited with ending the armed rebellion associated with the Shining Path and other guerrilla groups and stabilizing the economy. But, because no everything is perfect, his administration is considered corrupt and there were many human rights violations during his time in office. He is currently in Peru, facing charges for a number of different crimes.
1.1. Early Years:
Fujimori was born on July 28, 1938 in Miraflores (Lima). Fujimori's parents (Naoichi Fujimori and Mutsue Inomoto) were from Japan but immigrated to Peru in the 1934, were his father found work as a tailor and tire repairman. Alberto has always held dual citizenship, a fact that helped him in the following years.
A bright young man, he excelled in school, and graduated with good grades in Peru with a degree in Agricultural Engineering. He eventually went to the United States, where he earned his master's degree in Mathematics from the University of Wisconsin. Then, when he returned to Peru, he continued in an academia. He was appointed dean and after that rector of the National agrarian university, and was named president of the National meeting of vice-chancellors, basically making him the top academic in all of the country.
In 1990, Peru was in a crisis. Outgoing President Alan Garcia and his scandal-ridden administration had left the country a completed confusion, with out of control debt and inflation. In addition, the Shining Path, a Maoist insurgency, was gaining strength and popularity and attacking strategic targets in an effort to topple the government. Fujimori decided to run for president by a party: "Cambio 90."
His opponent was the well-known writer Mario Vargas Llosa. Fujimori, running on a platform of change and honesty, was able to win the election. During the election, he became associated with his nickname "El Chino," ("the Chinese Guy"). Neither candidate had enough votes for an outright victory.
Fujimori has suggested that he was always happy because of the term, which he perceived as a term of affection. Fujimori won the runoff election with 60 percent of the vote""the largest majority ever attained by a candidate in Peru. With his election victory, he became the first person of East Asian descent to become the government of a Latin American nation.
1.2.1. First Term:
Fujimori started his government in July 28th, 1990 and during this period; he took different actions that are explained in the following paragraphs with its respective events.
220.127.116.11. Economic Politic:
He put into practice the advices of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) which he apply the restructuring of prices named economic "shock". Also he changed the actual coin "Nuevo Sol".
18.104.22.168. Dissolve of the congress and constitutional crisis:
In April 1992 Fujimori dissolved the congress, imposed press censorship, suspended parts of the constitution, and arrested some of his political foes.
22.214.171.124. Shining Path:
It is a terroristic Peruvian organization that wanted to replace the bourgeois Peruvian institutions.
He credited this action with the successful capture and imprisonment of Abimael Guzman Reynoso, leader of the Shining Path.
126.96.36.199. MirafloresÂ´s attack:
It was an explosion of a car bomb in the second street Tarata in Miraflores (Lima) by the terrorist group Shining Path during the period of insight armed conflicted in Peru.
188.8.131.52. "La Cantuta" objective:
Alberto Fujimori, Vladimiro Montesinos and the general Nicolas Hermoza Rios asked for the terroristÂ´s heads by any method because they wanted to take revenge.
1.2.2. Second Term:
Because of the constitutional reform of 1993, Fujimori could take part in the re-election of 1995 defeating Javier Perez de Cuellar.
Some important events of this period are explained in the next paragraphs.
184.108.40.206. HostagesÂ´s crisis:
It was the last terroristic action in Peru.
220.127.116.11. Law of the authentic interpretation:
Fujimori started legal maneuvers to take part in another election by promulgating the law of authentic interpretation of the constitution.
18.104.22.168. Control of the media:
Fujimori started a politic of intervention on TV and newspapers to obtain support for his government with acts of corruption.
22.214.171.124. War and peace with Ecuador:
At the beginning of 1995, it was a conflict with Ecuador because of "Del Condor" mountain.
126.96.36.199. Elections of 2000:
At the end of the 90Â´s, the government of Fujimori had to face with the discovery of corruption cases.
1.2.2. Third Term:
After his election in 2000 because of people of other groups, we get notice of corruption acts by MontesinoÂ´s videos in which it could be appreciated briberies to other political parties to support Fujimori.
188.8.131.52. Retire from the government:
During the politic chaos, Fujimori traveled to Japan and from Tokyo he sent messages to Peru in which he resigned to the republic presidency.
1.2.3. After the government:
After five years of living in Japan, Fujimori traveled to Santiago, Chile, in November 2005. He was immediately arrested at the request of Peruvian authorities, who began legal proceedings to return Fujimori to Peru for trial.
In September 2007 Chile's Supreme Court granted Peru's extradition request, and Fujimori was sent to Peru, where he was placed under arrest. He was tried and convicted in December 2007 on charges of ordering a police search without judicial approval. He was sentenced to six years in prison. The same month Fujimori went on trial in a separate, more serious case in which he was accused of murder, forced disappearance, and other human rights violations.
In that trial, which ended in April 2009 Fujimori was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (1946- ) is a Peruvian politician and economist. He was President of Peru from 2001 to 2006. Toledo came to international prominence after leading the opposition against President Alberto Fujimori. After his presidential term, Toledo left Peru and went to the USA where he was a Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University (2006-2008). In 2007-2008 he was a Payne Distinguished Visiting Lecturer at Stanford University's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and a CDDRL (Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law) Visiting Scholar.
1.1. Early Years:
Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique was born on March 28th, 1946 in Pallasca (Ancash). His parents were indigenous, with sixteen children.
When Toledo was six years old, the family immigrated to Chimbote, where the father was a bricklayer and his mother was a fishmonger. As a child, he worked as a shoeshine boy.
Toledo studied at the local state school, G.U.E. San Pedro. At age 16, Toledo enrolled at the University of San Francisco on a one-year scholarship. He completed his bachelor's degree in economics by obtaining a partial soccer scholarship and working part-time pumping gas. Later on, he completed his PhD in economics and human resources at Stanford University. 56
1.2. Professional career:
Over the past 20 years, Toledo has worked as a consultant for various international organizations. He has also been a regular professor at ESAN, Peru's leading Business School. From 1991 to 1994, he was an affiliated researcher in the field of international development at the Harvard Institute for International Development. Among Toledo's publications are works on economic growth and on structural reforms. However, his latest book, "Las Cartas sobre la Mesa", describes his political career which led him to found the party Peru Possible.
1.3. Political career:
Toledo entered politics as an independent candidate for the presidency in the 1995 election, in which Alberto Fujimori was ultimately re-elected. He founded the Peru Possible party in 1999 and declared his intent to run in the 2000 election. Despite a constitutional ban on his serving a third term, Fujimori was once again a candidate in 2000. The incumbent defeated Toledo, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud.
After the fall of Fujimori, the president of the Peruvian Congress, Valentin Paniagua became interim president and called for new elections on May 29 2001. Toledo won after a close run-off election with former left-wing president Alan Garcia of the APRA party.
Toledo's inauguration took place on 28 July 2001 with his "Peru Posible" party.
1.4. The Toledo presidency:
Since coming to power, the Toledo administration has been plagued by ongoing civil unrest and civic discontent, due primarily to the continuing stagnation of the Peruvian economy.
In his electoral campaigns, Toledo promised "a break with the past", in particular with the deeply corrupt cronyism and institutionalized patronage of the Fujimori regime. But many of the rank and files of Peru possible joined the party with the hope of a job, and to stifle discontent within the ranks Toledo has been forced to open civil-service positions to party members, an obvious step backward.
In June 2002 the southern city of Arequipa was paralyzed for a week by strikes and riots in protest of the privatization of two regional electricity generating plants. The government had underestimated local resistance and was forced in the end to rescind the privatizations. The affair sent a clear message to the Toledo administration that its policies are highly unpopular. Despite macroeconomic growth (4,9 % for 2002), Peru remains mired in recession, with more than fifty percent of the population living in poverty, fifteen percent in extreme poverty.
1.5. Personal life:
Toledo has been married to Eliane Karp since 1979. They were separated in the 1990s, but did not divorce. They have one child, a daughter named Chantal who was born in 1983. After a 10 year-long paternity dispute with Lucrecia orozco Zapata, Toledo admitted in October 2002 that he is also the father of Zarai Toledo Orozco, who was born December 16th, 1987.
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