Three Peruvian Presidents By Joselyn Romer

Critical Review written by studentsofenglish on Saturday 25, July 2009

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Alejandro Fujimori Fujimori (Spanish pronunciation) Japanese name: Ken'ya Fujimori (è-¤æ£® 謙也 Fujimori Ken'ya) was born on July 28, 1938 in Lima. He is a JapanesePresident of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. Peruvian politician who served as Fujimori obtained his early education at the "Colegio Nuestra Señora de la Merced" and "La Rectora", and graduated high school from "La gran unidad escolar Alfonso Ugarte" in Lima in 1956. He went on to undergraduate studies at the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina in 1957, graduating in 1961 first in his class as an agricultural engineer. There he lectured on mathematics the following year. In 1964 he went on to study physics at the University of Strasbourg in France. On a Ford scholarship, Fujimori also attended the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in the United States, where he obtained his master's degree in mathematics in 1969. In 1974, he married Susana Higuchi, also a Peruvian of Japanese descent. They had four children, including a daughter, Keiko, who followed her father into politics. In recognition of his academic achievements, the sciences faculty of the Universidad Nacional Agraria offered Fujimori the deanship and in 1984 appointed him to the rectorship of the university, which he held until 1989. In 1987, Fujimori also became president of the National Commission of Peruvian University Rectors (Asamblea Nacional de Rectores), a position which he has held twice. He also hosted a TV show called "Concertando" from 1987 to 1989, on Peru's state-owned network, Channel 7. During the campaign, Fujimori was nicknamed El Chino, which roughly translates to "Chinaman". Although he is of Japanese heritage, Fujimori has suggested that he was always gladdened by the term, which he perceived as a term of affection. With his election victory, he became the first person of East Asian descent to become head of government of a Latin American nation, and just the third of East Asian descent to govern a South American state, after Arthur Chung of Guyana and Henk Chin A Sen of Suriname (each of whom had served as head of state, rather than head of government). First Term (1990-1995): During his first term in office, Fujimori enacted wide-ranging neoliberal reforms, known as Fujishock. During the presidency of Alan García, the economy had entered a period of hyperinflation and the political system was in crisis due to the country's internal conflict, leaving Peru in "economic and political chaos". It was Fujimori's objective to pacify the nation and restore economic balance. Even though this program bore little resemblance to Fujimori's campaign platform, and was in fact more drastic than anything Vargas Llosa had proposed the Fujishock succeeded in restoring Peru to the global economy, though not without immediate social cost. Fujimori's initiative relaxed private sector price controls, drastically reduced government subsidies and government employment, eliminated all exchange controls, and also reduced restrictions on investment, imports, and capital flow. The IMF was impressed by these measures, and guaranteed loan funding for Peru. Inflation began to fall rapidly and foreign investment capital flooded in. Fujimori's privatization campaign featured the selling off of hundreds of state-owned enterprises, and the replacing of the country's troubled currency, the inti, with the Nuevo Sol. The Fujishock restored macroeconomic stability to the economy and triggered a considerable long-term economic upturn in the mid-1990s. In 1994, the Peruvian economy grew at a rate of 13%, faster than any other economy in the world. Second term (1995""2000) The 1993 Constitution allowed Fujimori to run for a second term, and in April 1995, at the height of his popularity, Fujimori easily won reelection with almost two-thirds of the vote. His supporters won control of the legislatureDuring his second term, Fujimori signed a peace agreement with Ecuador over a border dispute that had simmered for more than a century. The treaty allowed the two countries to obtain international funds for developing the border region. The 1995 election was the turning point in Fujimori's career. Peruvians now began to be more concerned about freedom of speech and the press. However, before he was sworn in for a second term, Fujimori stripped two universities of their autonomy and reshuffled the national electoral board. Consider President Fujimori an authoritarian. In addition to the nature of democracy under Fujimori, Peruvians were becoming increasingly interested in the myriad criminal allegations involving Fujimori and his chief of the National Intelligence Service, Vladimiro Montesinos. A 2002 report by Health Minister Fernando Carbone would later suggest that Fujimori had played a role in pressuring 200,000 indigenous people in rural areas into being sterilized from 1996 to 2000, as part of a population control program. Third term (2000) The 1993 constitution limits a presidency to two terms. Shortly after Fujimori began his second term; his supporters in Congress passed a law of "authentic interpretation" which effectively allowed him to run for another term in 2000. Fujimori's support virtually collapsed, and on November 10, Fujimori won approval from Congress to hold elections on April 8, 2001 "" in which he would not be a candidate. On November 13, Fujimori left Peru for a visit to Brunei to attend the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. On November 16, Valentín Paniagua took over as president of Congress after the pro-Fujimori leadership lost a vote of confidence. On November 17, Fujimori traveled from Brunei to Tokyo, where he submitted his presidential resignation via fax. Congress refused to accept his resignation, instead voting 62-9 to remove Fujimori from office on the grounds that he was "morally disabled." On November 19, government ministers presented their resignations en bloc. Because Fujimori's first vice president, Francisco Tudela, had broken with Fujimori and resigned a few days earlier, his successor Ricardo Márquez came to claim the presidency. Congress, however, refused to recognize him, as he was an ardent Fujimori loyalist; Márquez resigned two days later. Paniagua was next in line, and became interim Accusations of human rights abuses For many people in Peru think that the first massacre in Peru occurred on May 17, 1980 when the Shining Path terrorist group burned the ballot boxes in the village of Chuschi, province of Cangallo, department of Ayacucho on July 28 of that same year at 450 kilometers from Lima near the city of Chonta, department of Huancavelica, delinquent terrorints blew up the first electric pylon. As of that moment, the Shining Path and MRTA terrorist groups gave evidence of their relentless hatred and cruelty against the Peruvian people attempting against the democracy system of the country. The terrorist criminal actions increased car-bombs, armed strikes, and destruction of electric pylons while the selective and collective assassination of authorities, judges and innocent citizens multiplied. In 1992, a new strategy is developed in Peru and it proved to be a main factor in disbanding and reducing the action of the MRTA and Shining Path terrorist groups. This strategy resulted in the capture of loaders Victor Polay Capos and Abismael Guzman. On December 17, 1996, in an action headed by Nestor Cerpa Cartolini members of the MRTA terrorist group occupied the residence of the Ambassador of Japan in Lima during a diplomat reception; 500 guests were hold captive with the purpose of blackmailing the Government and negotiating the release of the groups members imprisoned for the felony of terrorism. On the same day that the MRTA terrorist group took the residence, The 1991 Barrios Altos massacre by members of the death squad "Grupo Colina", made up of members of the Peruvian Armed Forces, was one of the crimes cited in the request for his extradition submitted by the Peruvian government to Japan in 2003. Fujimori responded for the accusations that he had: 1) Fujimori said that Peru has as lot of problems when he was president and for that he said that in a declaration: "A billion dollars a year in cocaine exports but there were also economic problems. Hyperinflation of 7600 per cent was eating away at people's pockets; 25,000 people had died victims of terrorism. Shining Path and MRTA were two groups that had been growing since 1980. Shining Path was in a position where it could actually take over power. The government simply was not governing. It was terrible. It was total chaos. I said to myself who is going to fix this? Will it be the same politicians trying to gain power once again? I feel a certain responsibility towards my country. Why not? Help Peruvians" 2) Fujimori explain Chavín de Huantar: "A logical solution would be from under the ground. I called Montesinos and I explained to all of them that this was not going to be a traditional military operation. Instead, we have been using engineering techniques to plant the explosives and surprise the terrorists. When I was insisting that he leave Cerpa ask me "Go where?" "Go to the Dominican Republic, Berlin, or Havana;" and continue with your political movement. But save the lives of your comrades. He replied "I did not capture an embassy to get airplane tickets" They used to tell us "If there is a military attack no one will get out of her alive" 3) 22 April 1997 (Four months into the embassy siege) Army video Fujimori said: "The commandos needed to end the operation by blasting the main door in eight seconds. I verified that it look eight seconds. Iron the moment they went in until the explosion. In Peru, we have not going to accept terrorism. In Peru, we will support the principles of democracy and we have given an example to the international community by not allowing ourselves to be blackmailed by terrorists by not given in." Actually he is in the jail for all the things that he does. He said that is not his failed but a lot of things accused him, specially the family of the people that died. "All the good or bad things that we do in the past have a price in the present" Alan Gabriel Ludwing García Pérez was born on May 23, 1949 in the city of Lima, is the current President of our country, having won the 2006 elections on June 4, 2006 in a run-off against Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala. He went on to university studies at the Pontificia Universidad Católica and later earned his law degree at the National University of San Marcos in 1971. Afterwards, he moved to Europe, attending the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, where he studied and completed his thesis on constitutional law, earning him a doctorate in political science. In 1973, he went on to the Sorbonne University of Paris, where he obtained a degree in sociology. First Presidency: Garcia won the elections on April 14, 1985 with 45% of the votes. Since he did not receive the 50% of the votes required to win the presidency, Garcia had to enter a run-off against. Barrantes, however, retired and decided not to enter the run-off, saying he did not want to prolong the political uncertainly of the country. Garcia was thus declared president on July 28, 1985. It is necessary to mention that for the first time in its sixty-year history, the APRA party had come to power in Peru. Aged only 36, he was dubbed "Latin America's Kennedy" becoming the region's youngest president at the time. Despite hiss initial popularity among Peruvian voters, Garcia term in office was marked by bouts of hyperinflation, which reached 7,649% in 1990 and had a cumulative total of 2,200,200% over the five years, thereby profoundly destabilizing the Peruvian economy. Owing to such chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol was replaced by the inti in mid- 1985, which itself was replaced by the "Nuevo sol" in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion (1,000,000,000) old soles. According to studies of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics and the United Nations Development Programmer around the start of his presidency, 41.6% of Peruvians lived in poverty. During his presidency, this percentage increased by 13% (to 55%) in 1991. Garcia also made an attempt to nationalize the banking and insurance industries. He incurred the wrath of the International Monetary Fund and the financial community by unilaterally declaring limit on debt repayment equal to 10% of the Gross National Product, thereby isolating Peru from the international financial markets. The economic turbulence exacerbated social tensions in Peru contributed in part to the rise of the violent rebel movement Shining Path , causing a number of blackouts in Lima. Finally, Garcia's presidency left the country with HYPERINFLATION isolated from the international financial community, with negative reserves of US$900 million. All in the country was a chaos. Second Presidency: On July 28, 2006, Garcia was swom in as the new president of Peru, after winning approximately 53% of the nationwide vote in the elections help on June 4. His contricated was Humala. Following his victory Garcia stated that he "seeks good relations with Venezuela" and did not intend to start a movement in the region against Venezuela President Hugo Chávez. On his first speech as President, Garcia said that he would appoint neither a Finance Minister who was neither "an orthodox market liberal" nor a person "excessively in favor of state intervention in the economy" The more outstanding problem is with the people in the jungle that reclaimed that the government wants to taking out of his house, because they want the petroleum. Also people said that Alan Garcia permitted that the "Guerrilla Peruana" killed many wild. Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique was born on March 28, 1946. He is a Peruvian politician and economist. He was President of Peru from 2001 to 2006. He was elected in 2001 defeating former President Alan García. Toledo came to international prominence after leading the opposition against President Alberto Fujimori, who held the presidency from 1990 to 2000. After his presidential term, Toledo left Peru and went to the USA where he was a Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University during the 2006-2008 academic years. Early Years Toledo is one of sixteen children of a family of indigenous campesinos of Quechua heritage in the town of Cabana, Pallasca province, Ancash Department. Professional career Before being elected president, Toledo worked as a consultant for various international organizations, including the United Nations, the World Bank and others. He has also been a regular professor at ESAN, Peru leading Business School. In 1991, he was an affiliated researcher in the field of international development at the Harvard Institute for International Development. Political career Toledo entered politics as an independent candidate for the presidency in the 1995 election in which Alberto Fujimori was ultimately reelected. He founded the Peru Possible party in 1999 and declared his intent to run in the 2000 election. Despite being a relatively low- profile politician Toledo suddenly found himself leader of the opposition against Fujimori and he received the support of most of the other presidential candidates. Presidency: During the five years of his presidency, the Peruvians economy grew at an average of six percent, one of the highest growth rates in Latin America. Inflation averaged 1.5 percent and fiscal deficit went as low as 0.2 percent. During his presidency he addressed the task of reducing poverty. One of the main efforts on doing so was the creation of "Juntos" The Peruvian economy grew steadily during 60 months at an average above 6% then 6.4% in 2005. A lot of investment took place in the mining, commerce and gribusiness sectors. During his administration country risk was among the lowest in the Latin American region. The economy recovery and the measures taken in the administration of the tax policy contributed to anincrease in tax collection. Name: Joselyn Estefany Römer Vigo Teacher: David White Course: Toefl 2009

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    Very nicely written. I know some American students who would not be as capable as Joselyn in composing an essay such as this. Cool