An advanced esl english student project designed to compare, 3 Peruvian presidents, each controversial in their own right
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Garcia, Fujimori and Toledo
Name: ARISSA MOREno RUIZ
Teacher: David White
Peru has been through different presidents, each one of them was different and had different types of doctrines. They had their ways to control and lead a country in order to suceed economically, morally, politically and socially. Some of them accomplished this goal but some of them did not. Leading a whole country is not an easy thing to accomplish; you have to be brave enough to just stand in front of thousands and thousands of people that have something in common, the fact of being Peruvians. This project helped me in many ways. Before doing this project, I did not realize how important and essential it was for me and all the Peruvians to know their past. We have to be aware of all this presidents that belive it or not are an important part of our hisotry and our past. Some of them will be remebered as good presidents, some of them as bad and the rest won't be remembered at all. Beggining from learning our history and understanding it, we can transform ourselves into better citizens, we can know what is going to happen if we continue being like that, we can learn from our past mistakes for choosing someone who was not capable to lead our country and its problems. A pessimistic Peruvians would say that everything that these presidents did worsened our situation and did not help us to improve our quaility of life as a country and as individuals. That is not true; they did something that helped us to become a better country. For example, Alan Garcia (1985-1990,2006-2011) was accused of corruption and bribey and his first governance was characterized by the worst economic crisis in the country's history with an unprecedented hyperinflation but after all he has learned from his mistakes and has promised us that he won't commit them again during his second government; Fujimori (1990-200) killed a lot of innocent people in violent ways and was charged with the violation of human rights and corruption but he eliminated terrorism and its leaders; and Toledo (2001-2006) restored laws and full respect for civil liberties, he improved macroeconomics by encouraging foreign investment and the agreements of free commerce, and he implemented several investment projects in infrastructure and human development, however, he suffered a serious crisis of governance and popular disapproval due to the existence of scandals that involved his private life. Each one of these presidents had strong and weak points and aspects.
ALBERTO FUJIMORI (1990-2000)
1. Fujimori's Biography:
- He is a Peruvian politician. He is an agricultural engineer who did postgraduate studies in physics and mathematics. He is the son of a couple of Chinese immigrants.
- In 1988, he is the founder of the Group "Cambio 90". He was elected president two years later won the 1990 presidential election, defeating MarioVargas Llosa.
- He was reelected in 1995 and 2000 by an absolute majority. He introduced a plan in order to reduce the serious economic situation that Peru had in that moment.
- On April 5, 1992, he led an "autogolpe" and dissolved the parliament with the support of the army.The victory of the group allowed Fujimori to legitimize their "coup d'etat" and a new constitution in line with its policy. When he was under his second term the country experienced significant economical growth.
- In the end of his governance, he was accused of corruption, illicit enrichment, the kidnapping and subsequent release of hostages in the Japanese Embassy in Lima (April 1997-December 1996) among other issues.
- Fujimori was born in Lima on July 28, 1938
- His parents were Naochi and Matsue Fujimori and were inmigrants from (Shiyajama) Japan, to Peru. His parents were agricultural field hands.These was difficult for him and his family because at that time japanese people were not looked good and respected as human beings, they suffered all the consequences of racism.
- Fujimori had two brothers and two sisters. All of them grown up in a poor district of Lima called La Victoria and went to public schools.
- He studied at La Molina and got a degree in the agricultural engineering program in 1961.
- Fujimori spoke Spanish, Japanese, English, French, and German because after getting graduated he travelled all over the world in order to work as a teacher.
- In 1974, he got married with the industrial engineer Susana Higuchi and had 4 children. After that in 1994, her divorced his wife.
- On November 7, 2005 he traveled to Chile, where he was arrested by the authorities of that country.
- On September 21, 2007, the Supreme Court of Chile welcomed the request to extradite him to Peru.
- In 2005 he was arrested in Chile, and released. He has been on a trial and sentenced to 25 years of life in prison.
- Alberto Fujimori ran for president in 1990 when he was the leader of the group "Cambio 90" that was created the previous year.
- His candidacy was supported initially by marginal sectors of Peruvian society, the informal groups and some evangelical churches, all of them helped him to suceed in politics in Peru.
- Fujimori won 20% of the votes in the first round in April 1990, moving to second round against the writer Mario Vargas Llosa (who leads the Democratic Front) and winning Aprista government candidate, Luis Alva Castro.
- In the runoff for the precidency, Fujimori received the support of various leftist groups (supporter of the political left) and the previous and disastrous government of Aprista Alan García. A number of advisers, including lawyer and former captain Vladimiro Montesinos started working in his campaign. On June 8, Fujimori defeated Mario Vargas Llosa with 60% of the vote.
3. Economical Aspects:
- Recovered and restored the country's macroeconomic stability by implementing what we call "coup d'état" that consited of economic freedom ("neoliberalism"), so it was possible to control hyperinflation and eliminate subsidies.
- He managed to overcome the problem of currency devaluation and changed the currency to "Un Nuevo Sol".
- The reforms adopted at the beginning of the last decade by Fujimori were not democratical or liberal. It was a dictatorship.
- His governance did not consist of "market economy" and democracy.
- Fujimori's government implemented a policy openly mercantile.
- Fujimori privatized companies with legal monopolies (an organization or group which has complete control of something, especially an area of business, so that others have no share), such as Telefónica.
- Fujimorism's economic policy did not reduce the size of the state instead of that he increased it.
- There were not tax cuts, or market liberalization or elimination of tariffs, nor reform, nor deregulation (to remove national or local government controls or rules from a business or other activity).
- In 1990, Peru was on the verge of collapse, hyperinflation had destroyed the national economy and "el senderismo" influenced over the democratic society, the majority of Peruvians tried to survive after the difficult governancce of Alan García. Alberto Fujimori was elected president after defeating Mario Vargas Llosa with the support of the APRA and the left, both groups that rejected the neo-liberal government of the acclaimed writer.
- Besides having a mercantile governane, Fujimorism was also undemocratic. When in 1992, Fujimori organized a "coup d'etat" and dissolved the Congress and at the same time captured the Judiciary (the part of a country's government which is responsible for its legal system and which consists of all the judges in the country's courts of law), after that we relized that the fragile democracy in the country fell completely apart.
- He wanted to have external credit again so he negotiated with the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and liberated Peru from the isolationism that Alan left. The economic measures were rejected by the left and APRA; however, Fujimori continued with his economic policy and brought stability. Fujimori motivated foreign investment in Peru; the main investors were Spaniards and Chileans.
4. Social Aspects:
- He fought through methods, not necessarily appropriate, against terrorists threat of groups like Shining Path and The Revolutionary Movement Tupac Amaru, after the government of Alan García (1985-90).
- Characteristics: human rights violations (murders and kidnaping people), lack of democracy, and restrictions on press freedom, militarization, panic and threats to people, innocent prisoners.
- In the early days of his governance he held an intense bombing campaign against Shining Path and the MRTA (Guevara).
- In Lima, the explosion of the self-July 26th 1992 at Tarata Street, in the district of Miraflores, is the bloodiest action that would mark this period. Shining Path guerrilla group attacked during the internal conflict in Peru. The explosive was 400 or 500 kilograms of "ammonium nitrate and fuel oil" mixed with dynamite.
- There were also acts of violence related to repression and serious human rights violations.
- In December 1991, the slaughter occurred in Barrios Altos, in which 15 people were killed.
- In July 1992, the kidnapping and murder of 9 students and a professor at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle (La Cantuta). These actions were carried out by the Grupo Colina death squad that operated for years as part of a dirty war against members of the terrorist organization Sendero Luminoso. The event happened two days after the Shining Path's Tarata bombing left over 40 dead in Lima Province. Fujimori was accused of being the intelectual mind that controlled the army in order to commit these crimes.
- He eliminated terrorism in not very good ways: The actions of the intelligence services, combined with the organization of the military in rural areas, managed to reduce increasingly terrorism.
- Important events that contributed this:
1. In July 1992, the capture of Victor Polay Campos, leader of the MRTA.
2. The decisive blow to terrorism occurred on September 12. On that date "the National Directorate Against Terrorism" (DINCOTE), led by Police Colonel Ketin Vidal was able to peacefully capture Abimael Guzmán, leader of the terrorist group Sendero Luminoso, who wanted to establish a Maoist regime in Peru, along with several members of central committee of that organization.
3. After that, Shining Path was in decline in a few years and had been reduced to a few groups in the high jungle of Peru, without becoming any real threat to Peruvians. Fujimori put an end to a decade of terror and returned to Peru's internal peace.
5. Political Aspects:
- The dissolution of the Congress and the creation of a new Constitution in order to be re-elected. The Constitution was drafted by the Democratic Constitutional Congress that was convened by President Alberto Fujimori during the Peruvian Constitutional Crisis of 1992 that followed his 1992 dissolution of Congress. Itwas promulgated on December 29, 1993.
- On April 5, 1992, President Alberto Fujimori's governance organized a coup that produced the dissolution of Peru's Congress and the dismantling (to get rid of a system or organization, usually over a period of time) of the country's legal system. After the coup, the president took over and controlled the country's media organizations and almost all its free institutions, he made the promise that democracy would return within the year.
- Corruption: There are numerous cases of senior state officials and Fujimori involved in dirty operations, extortion, illicit enrichment, among other crimes that are practiced as part of the role assigned to them.We can watch the vladivideos where we can see him giving $15m (Â£9.3m) in state funds to his spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos.
``Fujimori didn't keep his 1990 campaign slogan of Honesty, Jobs and Technology. He left us with corruption, unemployment and poverty.'' "" One peruvian said this.
AlAN GARCIA PEREZ (1985-1990; 2006-2011)
1. Alan Garcia's Biography:
- His full name is Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez; he was born on May 23, 1949 in Lima, Peru.
- He studied Literature at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, graduated from the Attorney National University of San Marcos. And he also studied at La Universidad Complutense de Madrid and the Sorbonne in Paris.
- As a member of the APRA, he was instructed by the founder Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Garcia was one of his favorite pupils.
- Alan García Pérez is the President of the Republic of Peru since July 28, 2006. Actually, he is in his second term governance that includes more conservative economic positions than in its previous mandate and governance pacts.
Important facts and dates of his life:
1. Between the years 1977 and 1980, he was elected Secretary of The APRA.
2. In 1979 he was a member of the Constituent Assembly.
3. Between 1980 and 1985, he was National Deputy.
4. Between 1982 and 1985, he was Secretary General of the APRA.
5. In 1985 at the age of 35 years, he was elected President of the Republic for the period 1985-1990.
6. In April 1992, following the coup d'etat by Mr. Alberto Fujimori, he was granted asylum (protection or safety, especially that given by a government to foreigners who have been forced to leave their own countries for political reasons) in Colombia and France until January 2001. That year, he returned to Peru.
7. He was a candidate for the presidency by APRA, obtaining 47% of the votes in the presidential elections of June 2001.
8. In 2004 he was elected Chairman (a person in charge of a meeting or organization) of APRA.
9. He was Director of the Institute of Government, University of San Martin de Porres.
10. In the presidential elections of June 2006, he was elected again with 52.6% of the national vote, defeating Ollanta Humala.
2. Alan's first government (1985-1990):
- It is associated with government of Alan García (1985-1990) with the memory of major corruption scandals, fuel and food shortages and looting (steal) of The Treasury.
- In the general election of 1985, Alan García Pérez (APRA) defeated Alfonso Barrantes Lingan ("Izquierda Unida"). Allan Garcia promised a "government for all Peruvians."
- Alan García enjoyed great popularity at the beginning of his government. Most people were confident in his leadership and his party to boost development of the country.
- His first governance was characterized by the worst economic crisis in the country's history with an unprecedented hyperinflation. Consequently, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti.
- In 1985, Peru was facing with the difficult economic situation left by Belaúnde's government; the government of Garcia not only proposed a stabilization program but also a program of stabilization and growth.
- He decreased 50% interest rate for agricultural loans and organized aid programs for 39 microregions. The scheme implemented (between August 1985 and January 1986) frozen food prices (to freeze something such as pay or prices is to fix them at a particular level and not allow any increases), lower agricultural interests; he also relieved taxes and reduced the cost of fertilizers. All these measures taken had negative effets. Consequently, Garcia had to face protests of sugar, cotton and coffee farmers demanding better prices.
- When Alan García announced that his government would limit the payment of external debt to 10% of export earnings, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) said that Peru as "ineligible country". With this the country could save foreign exchange, so Garcia banned the import of 200 different goods.
"The Peru stopped being able to get major credit from international agencies such as the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank and many public plans that were approved in the previous government were not realized. At first, there were not many Peruvians that were concerned about the implications of this decision, which ended up triggering international isolation, a confrontation with the country's foreign creditors and one of the worst economic crises in Peru's history. "- Said by Carlos Contreras and Marcos Cueto, 2000
- The government proposed to revive the economy to support the national business. Garcia tried to find the growth of this market by promoting employment and increasing wages. Moreover, a national bourgeoisie supported the sale of "MUC dollars".
"García promoted what became known as a "heterodox' economic program ". This was based on a policy of selective intervention in the economy, providing government subsidies to businesses and employees to stimulate the depressed economy and revive growth. Also he contained anti-inflationary measures such as a complex system of wage and price controls. He established government programs to hire workers for state projects designed to improve living conditions in towns and rural impoverished areas."- Said Said by Carlos Contreras and Marcos Cueto, 2000
- The reactivation program of the Alan García did not take effect. In 1987 the state's reserves were depleted and the crisis began to manifest itself.
- On July 28, 1987 Alan García announced the nationalization of banks. It was a desperate measure to save his government's fiscal from collapse.
- The economic crisis worsened social tensions in Peru and contributed in part to the rise of the violent rebel movement called Shining Path, which produced the internal conflict in Peru and began attacking electric towers in many places of Peru, (causing a number of blackouts in Lima).
- Garcia could not complete his plan of reginalization because of the agriculture and the food crisis.
- In 1985, Peru was at an internal war. There were 2 different rebel groups that confronted the State: "PCP-Sendero Luminoso" and "Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru (MRTA)". The conflict spread and caused considerable human and material losses.
"Sendero Luminoso, after some prevention of their actions, started its final offensive against the" fascist state" to control various regions of the country. They were able to recruit young militants in public universities, national colleges, factories and marginal human settlements".- Said by Carlos Contreras and Marcos Cueto, 2000
- The government boasted that they represented the workers' interests. It is remarkable that between 1985 and 1986, the governemtn payed a lot of attention to the demands of the unions.
- FACTS THAT PROVE VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS:
1. Between 18 and June 19, 1986, 230(maybe more than 300) prisoners were killed in prison in Lima (in Penales) in Lurigancho and El Fronton. There were a lot of extra judicial executions. The government tried to stop terrorism by implementing, since 1987, the absence of guarantees, military intervention in universities and the creation of an extensive list of detainees without evidence; besides that these actions did not weakened terrorists' actions.
2. Garcia also protected the "Commando Rodrigo Franco" that was guilty of murdering the lawyer Manuel Febres, that was the defender of senderista Morote.
3. Garcia also masked the Cayara's case that happened in May 1988, this case involved the general César Valdivia for the death of 28 peasants charged with senderismo.The prosecutor Carlos Escobar found enough evidence to open to the general process but the APRA obstructed the process without any reason.
- Garcia never carried out his promise of reforming the educational system. In that field, we can only find complaints about bad handling of educational material.
- There was no housing reform either, except a law tan consited in giving municipalities titles of property to young people that were occupants of "pueblos jovenes".
- Some public works: He created the Ministry of Defense and the National Police of Peru, he opened "Museo de la Nación" and he promised to build an electric train with the help of the central governemnt (but he never accomplished this).
- Inflation and the closure of companies obligated many workers to renounce their rights in order to stop losing their jobs.
- The crisis was exacerbated by widespread corruption practiced by all levels of government and led to the collapse of utilities (continuous electric service cuts). He was charged with crimes such as drug trafficking, bribery, embezzlement, money laundering, illicit enrichment and involvement in shady business.
"I think that it was mostly a very mediocre governance because of two things: first, the crisis of political parties (...) And, second, the preferential vote ... " -Cesar Arias Quincot, a recognized expert on International issues
- Garcia was accused of many serious charges of corruption during his first governance. The complaints and accusations failed to prosper due to the control of Aprista Party over the Congress; the majority of the accusations were finally closed without any verdict.
- The opposition to the government increased significantly since the attempt to nazionalize banks, a move which was highly unpopular. This caused a strong protest movement led by writer Mario Vargas Llosa and the political alliance FREDEMO (which included the Christian People's Party, Popular Action and the Freedom Movement).
- The end of his governance: The first government of Alan García ended in the middle of one of the most deep economic, social, political and moral crises of our republic. These acts of terrorism and economic instability provoked the discontent of the Peruvian population. Consequently, in the elections of 1990, Alberto Fujimori was elected as president .
3. Second Government (2006-2011):
- His second government has been characterized by various austerity measures, the beggining of major economic projects and the restructuring of the diplomatic relations.
- Garcia does not want to commit the same errors than the one he commited between 1985 and 1990. So, he continues the economic policies of Alejandro Toledo. Thus, the Free Trade Agreement with United States and Thailand will be upgraded. But, there are problems with the natives and the sell of peruvian land where they live to foreign investment.
ALEJANDRO TOLEDO (2001-2006)
1. Toledo's Biography:
- Alejandro Toledo Manrique was born in Cabana (Pallasca Province, Department of Ancash), on March 28, 1946, he was the son of a poor family in the area.
- His father and his mother were ancashinos; the main activity of the family was farming. By the 50s, the family decided to immigrate to Chimbote to seek a better future. He had many types of work while he was a child; he even worked as a shoeshine boy to help with family income. He knows what hard life is.
- He studied at the shcool GUE San Pedro. He won some literary school prizes and he was named a correspondent for the newspaper La Prensa in Chimbote. While he was a correspondent, he interwieved many politicians such as General Manuel Odría and political leaders like Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre and Fernando Belaunde.
- Before finishing high school, Toledo got a scholarship in the United States in order to study Economics at the University of San Francisco. He also studied at Stanford University, where he obtained two masters degrees and finally a doctorate (PhD) in Economics of Human Resources.
- He has been an official consultant to the UN, the World Bank, IDB, and ILO in Geneva and the OECD in Paris.
- In the academic field was Professor of ESAN from1991 to 1994and he has also been a research associate at Harvard's Economics Institute for International Development. He has experience as an advisor to three Latin American governments.
- In 1995, Alejandro Toledo founded the party "Perú Posible"and submitted his candidacy for the presidency but Mr. Alberto Fujimori was elected. In 2000, he was elected, defeating Fujimori escaped to Japan because of different accusations of bribery. He ran for president after defeating Alan Garcia.
- Nowadays, he teaches at Stanford University and gives lectures in various countries. Toledo also chairs his party. In addition, he has developed the Global Center for Development and Democracy and he has organized a summit of presidents in April 2008 in Lima. He always gives an opinion on the management of Alan García, he opposes Garcia.
2. Public Works and facts of Toledo's Government:
- He promoted neoliberal measures that caused a huge growth of macroeconomic statistics in the Peruvian economy, but the poverty of the country did not decrease.
- He promoted investment in the mining sector and he supported companies that were established in the past decade.
- He opened "the Camisea gas Gaesoducto".
- He initiated the construction of the Interoceanic Peru-Brazil Highway.
- He became the leader of the project called "South American Community of Nations" (today called South American Union of Nations or UNASUR), a political and economic community consisted of twelve independent countries of South America. This organization was founded on December 8, 2004, in the temple of Coricancha Inca, Cusco, Peru.
- He found new markets for agricultural and textile exports. So, he signed important trade agreement with Mercosur, the Andean Community and Thailand.
- His governmetn respected the constitutional independence of state powers and freedom of expression, despite all the cases of corruption and political scandals and members of his family that were that also caused some scandals.
- In 2003, the Final Report was issued by the TRC. This report included that 69,280 people were killed and kidnapped in those two decades blaminng all the forces of state security and, above all, Sendero Luminoso, for violating human rights by causing death.
- On November 21, 2003, Toledo apologized on behalf of the State to all victims of terrorist violenceand their families. A famous phrase is "social exclusion, lack of state presence and neglection were the cause of terrorist ideology that mainly affected the poorest Peruvian."
- On November 3, 2005, he enacted the law called "Ley de Líneas de Base Del Dominio Marítimo Del Perú". He established a new criterion for the delimitation of the territorial waters of the Pacific. This law was immediately rejected by the Chilean government.
- He approved the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), also known as TLC, with the United States. Its main purpose was to eliminate barriers to trade in goods and services, and stimulate private investment in both respective countries.
3. Other important events were:
- The construction of houses and departments in progrmas "Techo Propio" and "Mivivienda".
- The project "A trabajar" to fight against unemployment.
- The project "Plan Huascaran" in order to modernize access to information in schools through the use of the Internet.
- The significant increase in state salaries for teachers.
- The start of the construction of the Interoceanic Peru-Brazil Highway.
- The construction of the Camisea gas pipeline (a very long large tube, often underground, through which liquid or gas can flow for long distances).
- The foundation of the South American Community of Nations today called South American Union of Nations (UNASUR).
4. Alejandro Toledo and International Relations:
- Venezuela: Toledo proceeded to normalize diplomatic relations with the government of Venezuela because these relations were damaged during the short government of Valentín Paniagua and the case of Vladimiro Montesinos. However, the diplomatic relations between these countries did not last because of "coup d'etat".
- Japan: Diplomatic relations with the government of Japan were deteriorated after a refusal to extradite former President Fujimori, he was charged with various crimes and in Toledo where he insists on it.
- Brazil: On the intergation's apect, Toledo established economic agreements with Brazil. These agreements inluded projects to improve communications between the two countries and Bolivia.
- United States: He has promoted and accelerated negotiations for the TLC between Peru - USA, along with Ecuador and Colombia.
- He wanted to fulfill the dream of Simon Bolivar in Latin American Integration. So, he proposed The South American Community of Nations.
- Israeli: Toledo was also the only Latin American president to visit Israel in an official manner. On this trip, he had a meeting with Israeli President Moshe Katsav and then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. He took this trip in order to promote the export sector in Peru and Israeli, foreign investment and the development of agricultural technology in Peru.
5. What do experts think about Toledo?:
- Several analysts and politicians like Rafael Rey, Martha Hildebrandt, sociologist and psychoanalyst July Cotler Jorge Bruce believe that the government of Alejandro Toledo was a period of relative political and economic stability. His government was based on neoliberal measures; macroeconomic statistics indicate a steady growth in the Peruvian economy and a majority approval of the same. Among the causes of this growth began with the development of the mining companies and large projects like Camisea Gas or Interoceanic Highway as well as the expansion of various sectors as construction, textile industry and agribusiness. However, the situation of widespread poverty and social conflict was known during his governance. He restored laws and full respect for civil liberties, he improved macroeconomics by encouraging foreign investment and the agreements of free commerce, and he implemented several investment projects in infrastructure and human development, however, he suffered a serious crisis of governance and popular disapproval due to the existence of scandals that involved his private life.
6. What do people think of Toledo?:
On a survey made by the web site adonde.com: The President of Peru, Alejandro Toledo, will be remembered by Peruvians, as a president who to covered up cases of corruption within his family as well as a president who promised a lot and did not fulfill all his goals. The survey was entitled "How will President Toledo be remembered by peruvians?", the survey was performed between 2nd and 10th, July and received 550 responses with from peruvians that live around the world. Visitors of Adonde.com could give their opinion with complete freedom.
1. 12.8% of the respondents indicated that Alejandro Toledo will be remembered as a corrupt president, which masked the corruption of his family members.
2. 12.5% of Peruvians believe that Toledo will be remembered as a president who was a liar who promised that he will do a lot of things but he accomplished just a few.
3. 10.1% believed that President Toledo will go down in be remembered as a person who was addicted to alcohol and drugs and who liked to party a lot. These people were based on his salary of 18 thousand dollars a month, his romances and his continuing trips using the presidential plane.
4. Peruvians also recognize the merits of government of Alejandro Toledo: 5.6%, thinks that Toledo was a president who has done a lot for the economy: a stable economy, growing exports and the North American Free Trade Agreement with United States.
5. 5.5% of Peruvians believe that he had a mediocre government and a president who was inept and incapable. He was known for his unpunctuality.
6. 4.2% believe that Alejandro Toledo will be remembered asa Democrat who fought against the authoritarian government of Alberto Fujimori and the corruption organiztion of Montesinos.
7. Others: 4.1 % (best president), 3.7% (first indigenous president), 3.3 % (worst president).
We have to remember these presidents and teach future generations about them. They have done good and bad things which some people liked and others did not like at all. We have to respect our opinion and other people's opinion. All of them had positive and negative aspects. While one tried to eliminate terrorism, the other tried to improve the economy of the country and the other promised to not make the same mistakes. We need to be aware of this topic. This project helped me to learn and realize the facts of each governance that are not taught in shcools, things that are really important to us and to the future generations. Remember what they did, what they promised, what they did not accomplish and be prepeared for the next president, we must be prepared to judge them and contribute to the development of our country. This revision can be used to compare these 3 presidents that contributed in one or more ways to our country. I can't choose who the best president was. Just to remain the main points of each president:
a. Alan Garcia: (1985-1990,2006-2011) he was accused of corruption and bribey and his first governance was characterized by the worst economic crisis in the country's history with an unprecedented hyperinflation but after all he has learned from his mistakes and has promised us that he won't commit them again during his second government;
b. Fujimori: (1990-200) killed a lot of innocent people in violent ways and was charged with the violation of human rights and corruption but he eliminated terrorism and its leaders;
c. Toledo: (2001-2006) restored laws and full respect for civil liberties, he improved macroeconomics by encouraging foreign investment and the agreements of free commerce, and he implemented several investment projects in infrastructure and human development, however, he suffered a serious crisis of governance and popular disapproval due to the existence of scandals that involved his private life.
Bibliography and web sites:
- KLAREN, Péter, Perú: Estado y Nación, IEP, Lima, 2004.
- CONTRERAS, Carlos y Marcos Cueto, Historia del Perú Contemporáneo, IEP, Lima, 2000.